Issues - ADHD and food additives
His pioneering work has been ridiculed and studies
done to disprove his statements. However, in spite of these
"negative Feingold studies" about 50% of those who
have tried the Feingold diet (even subjects in published studies
that went against Feingold's Hypothesis) had significant decreases
in symptoms of hyperactivity. [J. Harley, R. Ray, L. Tomasi,
et al. Hyperkinesis and food additives: Testing the Feingold
hypothesis. Pediatrics 1978; 61: 811-817. and also F. Levy,
S. Dumbrell, G. Hobbes et al. Hyperkinesis and diet. A double-blind
crossover trial with tartrazine challenge. Medical Journal
of Australia. 1978; 1: pgs 61-64.]
Interestingly, "negative study" researchers
focused on only 10 food dyes versus the 3,000 food additives
that Feingold had considered. (NOTE: The term Food Additives
in the USA actually covers over 5,000 chemicals added to food
products for various reasons—anti-caking, bleaching,
coloring, flavoring, emulsifying, preserving, thickening.)
In spite of several studies attempting to disprove Feingold's
"Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity" hypothesis,
the doors have been reopened as it has become evident that
food additives DO play a major role in the the hyperactivity
of children. Recently, the US National Institutes of Health
Consensus Conference on Defined Diets and Childhood Hyperactivity
agreed to reconsider the Feingold diet due to the fact that
the many studies disproving Feingold's hypothesis used inadequate
guidelines in their study and testing process, making their
C. Keith Conners, author of "Food Additives and Hyperactive
Children," has been the main researcher refuting the
Feingold hypothesis. Schauss and Rippere have done studies
of their own on the correlation of food additives and hyperactivity
in children, and have come up with some criticisms of Conners'
Research that are detailed below. [C. Goyette, C. Conners,
T. Petti, L. Curtis. Effects of Artificial Colors on Hyperkinetic
Children: A Double-blind Challenge Study. Psychopharmacology
Bulletin 1978; 14: 39-40 and also, V. Rippere. Food Additives
and Hyperactive Children: A Critique of Conners. Britain Journal
of Clinical Psychology 1983; 22: 19-32]
• Conners' used chocolate chip cookies
as the placebo in his studies, which can hardly be considered
an appropriate control substance. In studies of reactions
to food in hyperkinetics, chocolate produced a reaction in
33% in one study and 59% in another.
• The amount of food dye dosages used in Conners' studies
was way below the average daily intake based on FDA data.
On the average, most children, between the ages of 5 to 12,
take in a daily dose of 150 mg of mixed food dyes. Conners
used a dose of 26 mg a day in his studies, which doesn't even
compare to the real amount of intake by children.
• Low levels of food dye doses mixed with the long intervals
at which they were given falls short of the real life scenario
of most school-aged children.
• The type of blood test for allergy determination is
irrelevant in determining the result of food additive studies.
• The scales used for behavior reactions was an inadequate
measure of the true outcomes. The rating scale was subjective
and did not test on daily intervals.
• Conners was biased going into his studies which skewed
his results. He did not take into account the affect of other
environmental factors such as lighting, and he discounted
evidence supporting Feingold's diet.
If Feingold's hypothesis becomes more widely
accepted, the food industry will be greatly pressured into
making costly changes in food processing that will erode their
profits. This is thought to be the main reason why Feingold's
studies have been discounted. In other words, there is a conflict
of interest on the part of the Nutrition Foundation, an organization
supported by the major food manufacturers--Coca Cola, Nabisco,
General Foods, etc. With this organization sponsoring most
of the negative studies it's no wonder these studies are trying
to disprove Feingold's study. The major food manufacturers
will fight with everything they have to keep researchers mouths
shut regarding the harmful effects of artificial food additives
because wide acceptance of Feingold's Research would economically
hurt these companies. [Mattes J. The Feingold diet: A current
reappraisal. Journal of Learning Disabilities 1983; 16: 319-323]
For a term that was hardly known before the 1960's, learning
disability has come to include everything from unexplained
behaviour patterns to clinical autism and everything in between.
Learning disabilities have emerged as one of the most wide-ranging
medical problems of children who live in developed countries
where communicable disease is no longer a major threat.
A learning disability is defined as a condition that effects
one or more of the elementary processes involved in understanding
and applying language skills—either spoken or written.
Specific problem areas might include combinations of an inability
to listen, to think, speak, write, read, spell or engage in
mathematics. There might be dyslexia (the impaired ability
to read or write causing the individual to reverse words or
letters); or aphasia (a difficulty in speech or in understanding
the spoken word).
Frequently, children with ADD/ADHD characteristics also have
emotional instability. They display outbursts ranging from
excitement to extreme anger, and are an enormous challenge
for parents and educators who are not equipped to handle such
situations. In distress, parents seek the advice of family
physicians. The doctor, because of a lack of expertise in
this field, frequently prescribes drugs in an attempt to corral
the explosive behavior and decrease the learning handicap.
children, but a conservative 5% figure is more widely accepted
since the study that published that figure followed "improved
diagnostic criteria." Boys show a 10 times higher incidence
of ADD/ADHD than do girls. The drug "Ritalin" is
the most common medical treatment with over 2 million American
children (mostly boys) taking the drug. "Ritalin"
prescriptions to children are controversial and the possible
dangerous side effects are hotly debated.
The following excerpt from the Physician's Desk Reference
makes it easy to see why Ritalin is so controversial:
data on safety and efficacy of long-term use (greater than
24 months) of Ritalin in children are not yet available ...
suppression of growth (ie weight gain, and/or height) has
been reported with the long-term use of stimulants in children.
Therefore, patients requiring long-term therapy should be
The frequency of just "accepting the drug Ritalin as
a solution for children" is alarming for the following
1. Adults are making a decision and a choice that will affect
each day of a child's life. A "choice" for the child
to take a drug that has severe adverse reactions associated
2. This decision will affect the child each day he is on the
drug and possibly even for years after he no longer takes
U.S. Brand Names: Ritalin®
Use: Used to treat attention deficit disorder
Do not use in children under six years of age since
safety and efficacy in this age group has not been established.
Use with caution with emotionally unstable patients, especially
if these patients have a history of abuse. In psychotic children
Ritalin may worsen symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought
disorder. Abuse of this drug can lead to tolerance and psychic
dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior, severe
depression can occur with withdrawal.
of height and/or weight gain) has been reported in children
using this drug. Long-term therapy (greater than 24 months)
is especially dangerous.
Common: Trouble sleeping, nervousness, loss of appetite (anorexia
or nausea), fast heartbeat (tachycardia), increased blood
Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, stomach pain, black
stools, blood in urine or stools, chest pain, fever, joint
inflammation and pain, pinpoint red spots on skin, skin rash
or hives, uncontrolled twitching or jerking of muscles, unusual
bleeding or bruising
Blurred vision or any changes in vision; abnormal liver function
from minor to hepatic coma; narrowing and sometimes blockage
of arteries in the head; transient depressed mood; a few instances
of scalp hair loss; Tourette's syndrome--defined as repetitive
grimaces and tics of head, neck, arms, legs, and trunk, also,
involuntary barks, grunts, or other noises, in about half
the cases the sufferer has episodes of coprolalia (using foul
or mental changes, weight loss, stunted growth problems.
U.S. Brand Names: Desoxyn®; Dexedrine®
Use: Used to treat hyperactivity in children.
Do not use if you haven't tried other antidepressants
and psychotherapy first, if you have high blood pressure,
if you are very nervous or have severe insomnia, if you have
a history of addiction to drugs or alcohol, or if you have
Psychotic episodes at recommended doses (rare), overstimulation,
restlessness, dizziness, insomnia, euphoria, dyskinesia, dysphoria,
tremor, headache, exacerbation of motor and phonic tics and
Dry mouth, unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, other
GI disturbances, anorexia and weight loss.
Impotence, changes in libido
Mixed Amphetamine Salts
U.S. Brand Names: Adderall®
dizziness, insomnia, headache, dry mouth, weight loss.
Euphoria, unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, gastrointestinal
Palpitations, tachycardia, elevation of blood pressure,
psychotic episodes at recommended doses, overstimulation,
dyskinesia, dysphoria, tremor, exacerbation of motor and phonetic
tics and Tourette's syndrome.
Uticaria, impotence, changes in libido.
U.S. Brand Names: Cylert®
Use: Used to treat ADD/ADHD.
Warnings/Precautions: Stimulant drugs are addictive,
they produce a short-term mood elevation even in people who
are not depressed and when the effect wears off the user crashes
and feels very depressed, sleepy, and sluggish. Stimulants
can stunt growth in children with long term use. In psychotic
children these drugs may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance
and thought disorder, administer with caution to patients
with significantly impaired renal function, CNS stimulants
have been reported to precipitate motor and phonic tics and
Hepatic: Hepatic dysfunction including elevated liver enzymes,
hepatitis and jaundice
Rare aplastic anemia
of growth, skin rash
Central nervous system: Convulsive seizures,
may precipitate attacks of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome,
hallucinations, dyskinetic movements of the tongue, lips,
face and extremities, abnormal oculomotor function including
nystagmus and oculogyric crisis, mild depression, dizziness,
increased irritability, headache, and drowsiness
Anorexia, weight loss, nausea, stomach ache
U.S. Brand Names: Effexor®.
Use: Used to treat ADD/ADHD..
Do not take with MAOIs since interactions could be lethal.
Use with caution if you are taking cimetidine or if you have
high blood pressure or liver disease or are elderly.
Body as a whole: Headache, asthenia, infection, chills, chest
Vasodilatation, increased blood pressure, tachycardia, postural
Sweating, rash, pruritus,
Nausea, constipation, anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, dyspepsia,
Somnolence, dry mouth, dizziness, insomnia, nervousness, anxiety,
remora, abnormal dreams, hypertonia, paresthesia, libido decreased,
agitation, confusion, thinking abnormal, depersonalization,
depression, urinary retention, twitching
Blurred vision, taste perversion, tinnitus, mydriasis
Abnormal ejaculation/orgasm, impotence, urinary frequency,
urination impaired, orgasm disturbance, menstrual disorder
U.S. Brand Names: Paxil®
Do not use with MAOIs or in patients with a hypersensitivity
to paroxetine or to any of the inactive ingredients in paroxetine
Pregnancy Risk: Do not use during pregnancy
unless you absolutely need to. This drug is secreted in human
milk, use caution when nursing.
insomnia, agitation, tremor, anxiety, dizziness
Constipation, nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, vomiting,
abnormal ejaculation, sweating, impotence, libido decreased
trauma, allergic reaction, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain,
chest pain, back pain, chills, trauma
Vasodilation, palpitation, vasodilation
Photosensitivity, sweating, rash
Nausea, dry mouth, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite,
dyspepsia, flatulence, increased appetite, oropharynx disorder,
Myopathy, myalgia, myasthenia
Hypertonia, somnolence, dizziness, insomnia, tremor, nervousness,
anxiety, paresthesia, libido decreased, drugged feeling, confusion,
agitation, abnormal dreams, concentration impaired, depersonalization,
increased, bronchitis, rhinitis, yawn, pharyngitis
Abnormal vision, blurred vision, taste perversion
Ejaculatory disturbance, other male genital disorders, urinary
frequency, urination disorder, female genital disorders, dysmenorrhea,
impotence, menstrual disorder, vaginitis
U.S. Brand Names:Prozac®
Do not use with MAOI inhibitor.
C; is excreted in human milk, nursing or being pregnant while
on fluxetine is not recommended.
Asthenia, flu syndrome, fever, headache
Nausea, anorexia, dry mouth, dyspepsia, diarrhea, flatulence,
abnormal dreams, anxiety, nervousness, somnolence, tremor,
Pharyngitis, sinusitus, yawn
Impotence, abnormal ejaculation
U.S. Brand Names:Welbutrin®
Contraindications: Patients with a seizure disorder,
patients using other medications containing bupropion, patients
with a current or prior diagnosis of bulimia or anorexia nervosa,
patients using a MAO inhibitor, and patients who are allergic
to bupropion should not use bupropion.
Do not use Wellbutrin with Zyban or with any other medications
B; is secreted in human milk, potential for serious adverse
reactions in nursing infants, do not use when nursing or pregnant.
nausea, agitation, migraines>
Headache, infection, abdominal pain, asthenia, chest pain,
Palpitation, flushing, migraine hot flashes
mouth, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia, vomiting,
Myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis, twitch
Insomnia, dizziness, agitation, anxiety, tremor, nervousness,
somnolence, irritability, memory decreased, paresthesia, CNS
Pharyngitis, sinsusitis, increased cough
rash, pruritus, urticaria
Tinnitus, taste perversion, amblyopia
Urinary frequency, urinary urgency, vaginal hemorrhage, urinary
U.S. Brand Names: Depakote® Depacon®;
Use: Management of simple and complex absence
seizures; mixed seizure types; myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic
(grand mal) seizures; may be effective in partial seizures,
infantile spasms, bipolar disorder; prevention of migraine
Hypersensitivity to valproic acid or derivatives or any component;
CNS depression, avoid or limit alcohol
acid may cause gastrointestinal upset; take with large amounts
of water or food to decrease gastrointestinal upset. May need
to split doses to avoid gastrointestinal upset. Food may delay
but does not affect the extent of absorption. Coated particles
of divalproex sodium may be mixed with semisolid food (eg,
applesauce or pudding) in patients having difficulty swallowing;
particles should be swallowed and not chewed. Valproate sodium
oral solution will generate valproic acid in carbonated beverages
and may cause mouth and throat irritation; do not mix valproate
sodium oral solution with carbonated beverages.
on absorption; may take with milk.
and water intoxication; monitor fluid status. May need to
Hepatic failure resulting in fatalities has occurred in patients;
children under two years of age are at considerable risk;
monitor patients closely for appearance of malaise, weakness,
facial edema, anorexia, jaundice, and vomiting; may cause
severe thrombocytopenia, bleeding; hepatotoxicity has been
reported after 3 days to 6 months of therapy; tremors may
indicate overdosage; use with caution in patients receiving
1% to 10% experience:
Change in menstrual cycle
Abdominal cramps, anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight
Drowsiness, ataxia, irritability, confusion, restlessness,
hyperactivity, headache, malaise, alopecia, erythema multiforme,
hyperammonemia, pancreatitis, thrombocytopenia, prolongation
of bleeding time, transient increased liver enzymes, liver
failure, tremor, nystagmus, spots before eyes.
Symptoms of overdose include coma, deep sleep, motor restlessness,
and visual hallucinations. Supportive treatment is necessary.
Naloxone has been used to reverse CNS depressant effects,
but may block the action of other anticonvulsants.
3. Drug therapy has never cured a single case of learning
deficit. Mask, cover, temporarily take away symptoms? Yes.
But cure? No! Our society is filled with adults who were drugged
as children. They still have the same learning problems. Some
may have learned to hide, or otherwise compensate for their
deficit over time, but for most the problems remain because
the cause of the problems remain.
4. Research shows that many children who have taken drugs
for ADD/ADHD continually have drug addiction problems with
either legal drugs and/or illegal drugs for the remainder
of their lives. The reason for this could be that they are
convinced they can solve life's problems and difficulties
by taking a pill.
ADHD and Children's Environment
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects somewhere
between 10% and 15% of all school children in the U.S. (1.8
million to 2.7 million children). The estimate is uncertain
because the behavior of children can be erratic under the
best of circumstances and therefore the disorder is not simple
to diagnose. Indeed, many cases are thought to go undiagnosed.[1,2]
According to recent estimates, as many as 1.5 to 2 million
children in the U.S. diagnosed with ADHD are currently taking
Ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride), a prescription drug
with cocaine-like characteristics, to calm them down and/or
help them focus their attention.[1,pg.1;2,pg.3] In 1997, more
than 10 tons of Ritalin were ingested by U.S. children to
control ADHD. It was recently found that Ritalin causes liver
cancer in mice (though not in rats), so the long-term consequences
of Ritalin use by millions of children need to be considered.[2,pgs.13-14]
Much evidence suggests that the ADHD problem is growing. Last
month, at a medical conference devoted to the disorder, the
organizers of the conference estimated that occurrence of
ADHD among children in the U.S. is doubling every 3 to 4 years.
The use of Ritalin quadrupled between 1990 and 1997.[1,pg.1]
Children with ADHD often continue the symptoms into adulthood,
with unhappy consequences for job performance. According to
one 1997 estimate, somewhere between 6.5 million and 9 million
adults in the U.S. have ADHD -- making it as large a problem
as clinical depression or drug abuse. In 1997, about 730,000
adults in the U.S. were taking Ritalin by prescription for
The causes of ADHD are not known, but they are thought to
be a combination of hereditary predisposition and environmental
factors. Research in recent years has focused on prenatal
exposures to agents such as lead, cigarette byproducts, and
alcohol. Since the 1970s, researchers have been studying the
effects of certain foods and food additives such as dyes and
colorings; over the past 25 years, 16 out of 23 studies have
found that food additives exacerbate the symptoms of ADHD
in some children. Poor diet (malnutrition) undoubtedly
contributes to ADHD.[2,pgs.23,37] Most recently, research
has implicated pesticides and exposure to low levels of industrial
chemicals that may interfere with hormones, especially thyroid.[2,pgs.53,59]
Obviously, combinations of all these factors could be important.
ADHD was first identified as a specific disorder in 1902.
The definition of the disorder has changed over time. In 1902,
George Still described 43 children with aggression, defiance,
emotionality, limited sustained attention, and deficient rule-governed
behavior. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the term "minimal
brain damage" was used to describe the syndrome, even
though there was no evidence of brain damage in most of the
children so labeled. During the late 1950s, hyperactivity
began to dominate the description of the disorder and the
official name was changed to "hyperkinetic reaction of
childhood" or hyperkinesis. The use of stimulant drugs,
like Ritalin and amphetamines, to treat ADHD began in the
1960s. (Some drugs that act as stimulants or "speed"
in most adults can have a calming effect in children and even
in some adults.) In the 1970s, researchers considered inatten-
tion as central to the syndrome, and it became officially
known as attention deficit disorder or ADD. In the 1980s and
1990s, the combination of attention deficits and hyperactivity
have both been highlighted, thus the current name, Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).5
The DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS
IV, published by the American Psychiatric Association, describes
3 patterns of behavior that may indicate ADHD: consistent
inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior, or combinations
of these three behaviors.
1. the person fails to give close attention to details or
makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities;
2. the person has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks
or play activities;
3. the person often does not seem to listen when spoken to;
4. the person often does not follow through on instructions
and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace;
5. the person often has trouble organizing tasks and activities;
6. the person avoids or dislikes or is reluctant to engage
in tasks that require sustained mental effort;
7. the person often loses things necessary for tasks or activities,
such as pencils or tools;
8. the person is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli --
the honk of a car's horn, or a bird flying by.
A person with 6 or more of these inattention symptoms for
more than six months might be a candidate for an ADHD diagnosis.
1. feeling restless, often fidgeting with hands or feet, or
squirming in a seat;
2. running or climbing excessively at inappropriate times;
3. leaving a seat early in the classroom or in other situations;
4. the person has difficulty engaging in leisure activities
5. the person is often "on the go" or acting as
if driven by a motor;
6. the person often talks excessively;
7. the person blurts out answers before hearing the whole
8. the person has difficulty waiting in line or for a turn;
9. the person often interrupts or intrudes on others.
A person with 6 or more of these hyperactivity symptoms for
more than six months might be a candidate for an ADHD diagnosis.
1. Some of the behaviors must have begun early in life, before
2. In children the behaviors must be more pronounced than
in others the same age;
3. Above all, the behaviors must create a real handicap in
at least two areas of a person's life, such as school, home,
work, or social settings. So, for example, a child would not
be diagnosed with ADHD if he or she seems overly active at
school but functions well elsewhere.
Studies of identical twins reveal that environmental factors
contribute significantly to ADHD. It is not known whether
environmental factors can cause ADHD in an otherwise normal
person, or whether environmental factors only exacerbate ADHD
among those who are genetically predisposed. In either case,
people with ADHD often do poorly in school (many drop out
early), have low self-esteem, and have difficulty making connections
with other people. People with ADHD are often described as
messy, disorganized, inattentive, irritable, and aggressive.
Because their lives can be frustrating and unrewarding, some
ADHD sufferers may become hostile and even violent. In May
of this year, T.J. Solomon, 15, shot six of his schoolmates
at Heritage High School in Conyers, Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta.
At the time, the Solomon boy was taking prescription Ritalin
Malnutrition can trigger ADHD, and large numbers of U.S. children
are malnourished. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
publishes "recommended daily allowances" (or RDAs)
for various nutrients. USDA considers that RDAs exceed the
average nutritional requirements of average people; a person
is assumed to be malnourished if he or she receives less than
60% of an RDA for a particular nutrient. Notably, the number
of U.S. children consuming less than 50% of RDAs has been
reported as follows: vitamin A (9%); vitamin E (15%); vitamin
C (6%); calcium (7%); and zinc (6%). There are roughly
18 million children in the U.S., so these percentages represent
large numbers of malnourished individuals. These percentages
may even be somewhat optimistic; many scientists consider
RDAs inadequate measures of nutritional status because nutritional
requirements vary considerably from one individual to the
next, so averages may be misleading. Furthermore, the chemical
form of a nutrient is important but is often not considered
in typical assessments of nutrient status.
There is considerable evidence that food dyes can worsen the
symptoms of ADHD in some children, but government authorities
deny the evidence. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
has published a pamphlet called FOOD COLOR FACTS which states
that "there is no evidence that food color additives
cause hyperactivity or learning disabilities in children."
The pamphlet, though published by the FDA, was actually written
by the International Food Information Council, a trade association
representing many makers of food additives including General
Mills, Kraft, Procter and Gamble, Pepsi-Cola, Coca Cola, Monsanto
(maker of aspartame), and Ajinomoto (maker of monosodium glutamate).[2,pg.25]
To make the statement that there is no evidence that food
dyes cause hyperactivity or learning disabilities in children,
the FDA had to ignore 16 double-blinded studies that have
shown that food dyes do worsen the symptoms of ADHD in some
children. (A double-blinded study is one in which neither
the participants, nor those observing and recording the children's
behavior, know which children have been exposed to food dyes
and which have not, the purpose being to avoid bias.)
In 1976, a study of U.S. children between the ages of 6 and
11 found they ingested an average of 76 milligrams of food
dyes per day (mg/day). Ten percent of those studied ingested
twice that amount, or 146 mg each day. Since that time, the
quantity of food dyes manufactured per person in the U.S.
has increased 50%.[2,pg.11]
At a time when Americans are searching for causes of aggression
and violence among children, it would make sense to consider
malnutrition, food additives, tobacco additives, toxic metals,
pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting industrial toxicants
-- all of which many U.S. children are exposed to from the
moment of conception onward.
 Joseph A. Bellanti, William G. Crook, and Richard E. Layton,
editors, ADHD ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, CAUSES
AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS, CONFERENCE SYLLABUS OF PRESENTATION
PAPERS NOVEMBER 4-7, 1999, KEY BRIDGE MARRIOTT HOTEL, ARLINGTON,
VIRGINIA (Alexandria, Virginia: International Research Consultants,
November, 1999). Available for $25 from: International Research
Consultants, Suite 2J, 4600 King Street, Alexandria, Virginia
22302. Telephone (703) 998-6091; fax: (301) 320-4688; E-mail:
The conference was sponsored by the Georgetown University
Medical Center (Washington, D.C.) and the International Health
Foundation (Jackson, Tennessee).
 Michael F. Jacobson and David Schardt, DIET, ADHD &
BEHAVIOR; A QUARTER-CENTURY REVIEW (Washington, D.C.: Center
for Science in the Public Interest, November, 1999). Available
for $8.00 from the Center, No. 300, 1875 Connecticut Avenue,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009; telephone (202) 332-9110; fax:
(202) 265-4954; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Also available free at www.cspinet.org.
 Joseph A. Bellanti and William G. Crook, "Introductory
Remarks" in the syllabus cited above in note 1, pg. 1.
 David J. Morrow, "Attention Disorder Is Found In
Growing Number of Adults," NEW YORK TIMES September 2,
1997, pgs. A1, D4.
 Marianne Mercugliano Glanzman, "What is ADHD,"
in the syllabus cited above in note 1, pgs. 3-16.
 Associated Press, "Boy's Mother Apologizes Over Shooting
in Georgia," New York Times May 25, 1999, pg. A19.
 Donald R. Davis, "Nutritional Deficiencies in American
Children," in the syllabus cited above in note 1, pgs.
 For example, see Roger J. Williams, NUTRITION IN A NUTSHELL
(Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1962).
Descriptor terms: adhd; attention
deficit disorder; hyperactivity; children; ritalin; cancer;